This week was a work in-class day for the student as they prepped for the persuasion exhibition that will be held during Carnival.
The students are working in groups that focus on different elements of the exhibition from designing the exhibition layout, the branding and advertising, and the final documentation. The students are working together and leading these teams on their own, so they design a complete exhibition from start to finish, all the way to the final de-installation process. The exhibition will feature the projects the students have made during the semester, their cabinet of curiosities from the How You are Persuaded and the research and design interventions from the You as the Persuader.
This week we had a special guest speaker, Ian Hargraves, a CMU Alumnus and Design Researcher for the MayoClinic. He spoke about the work that they are performing on improving patient-doctor communication and how that relates to the topic of persuasion, in addition, he held a workshop with the students.
Conversation Design in Healthcare
Ian talked about the importance of the interactions between the patient and doctors and the difficulties and miscommunication that can occur during these events. The focus on these interactions is identifying what is the right thing to do for the patient, the goal, and to identify this many factors and influences have to take into consideration (ex. home environment + actions). He spoke about the importance of understanding how the patient is affected emotional, physical and socially so that there is a shared decision making and identifying that ultimately mattered to the patient.
The students participated in a workshop where the exercise revolved around role-playing a conversation between the doctor and patient. The students were assigned roles and the student who was playing the patient was given a prompt with background about who they are. Then the student who was playing the doctor would start the conversation by saying “What can I do for you today?”This exercise demonstrated the ambiguity that conversations can have and the difficulties and stress that patients experience taking to find the asked and solutions they need when there are many aspects of their lives that could be important to talk about in a limited amount of time.
The students did the same exercise a second time switching roles and patient promopts. This time the student playing the patient filled out a form that was developed by the Mayo Clinic, which is to help facilitate conversations. The student found it easier to have targeted conversations with additional information from the form.
This week the students presented their research plans for the second project “You as a Persuader” which focuses on developing an intervention that will “nudge” the target user to display different behavior around an identified problem.
The student’s presentations focused on laying out the research they have already conducted and their future plans in terms of additional research. There was a mix of research methods that the student planned to apply including interviews, probes, surveys, wizard of oz, and mapping exercises.
Today we reviewed the Instagram posts assignment, Dan introduced the concept of Design for Behavior Change, the students were introduced to the second project of the semester and they performed an in-class exercise that was related to the second project.
Instagram Homework Review
Last week the students had to take photos of something that represented interpersonal.
Design for Behavior Change
Dan introduced the concept of Design for Behavior Change / Design for Intent. The purpose of this type of design is to use design as a method to encourage and discourage certain behaviors. For example, designers may structure or change aspects of the environment or a city in a certain way to influence certain behaviors, such as the signs in Mexico or the environment change to allow easier access to the beach for wheelchair-bound people.
Many times this type of design is developed with a security mindset, for example, the anti-climb paints, which are paints with horrible texture or is sticky. Or hostile architecture, which is used many times as a method to dissuade homeless people from certain areas. It can also be used to make life easier, for example, the Amazon dash button or Zipcar which makes it easier for people not to own a car.
Though a lot of times, these types of design don’t work in the way that the designer intended. This is often a result of a misunderstanding of the intended user. It may be because the designers are missing empathy or a realistic view of the user’s everyday life.
We had the students break into groups and select a problem that they wanted to design something that would encourage behavior change. They used the provided cards as a starting point to think about a concept to address their selected problem.
We had the students present their problems and concept ideas. They had a range of problems that wanted to address from the issue of keeping a kitchen clean in a communal environment, access to locked studios, other students locking up studio rooms after they leave, and student leaving excess trash or materials in work areas.
We discussed the idea of not just making it easier for people but how can we use other methods as a means to influence behavior change. For example with the students not locking up when they leave their studios, instead of just installing a tap-card lock system, how could we change the environment? Many students may not lock the door because their hands are full and it is difficult to get their keys out. So what if you added a shelf next to the door, would that influence them by providing a space to free their hands.
Today we reviewed the Instagram posts assignment, students presented the progress of their first project, the cabinet of curiosities, and Eugenia introduced the concept of taste regimes.
Instagram Homework Review
Last week the students had to take photos of something that represented product semantics. We looked at the example of the scissors and the coffee maker, which contained handles and buttons to direct the user through its form.
We split into 4 groups with the students to discuss and review the ideas and progress of their cabinet of curiosities. It was interesting to hear the varying approaches students are taking from physical representations of a cabinet, virtual reality “cabinets”, and book “cabinets.” As well as the different topics of persuasion they were concentrating on from food to dreams. A few things to think about that came up is how will the viewer interact with their cabinets and how can they design the interaction to tell a story, as well as how can they tell the story of how their persuasive objects (whether it is receipts or social media) were persuading them at the moment and what their mindset was like to the viewer.
It will be exciting to see the final results!
Eugenia introduced the concept of taste regimes, which is part of social practice theory. Social practice is the relationship between people and the practices that we engage in every single day, such as the clothes you wear, which act as identifiers that can be classified in certain ways. The taste regime that you belong to dictates what you are consuming and how you are living your life.
Pierre Bourdieu, a French sociologist, introduced the Theory of Taste, which consists of Economic Capital, Social Capital, and Cultural Capital in relation to consumption. People can have each capital separately and they do not rely on one another.
And people desire to acquire things because it gives them power (social power, economic power, cultural power) and the symbolism of the acquisition provides them with fulfillment.
As designers, it is important to understand the different capitals because it gives us insight into our users and the way we should be designing for them, as well as understanding the trends and movements, especially within cultural capital.
We had the students think about their mornings (what they eat, what they are wearing, what items in their bags, how they got to school what media did they look at) and map them on a 2×2 matrix taking into consideration where things should be place on the matrix when thinking about cultural capital and economic capital.
Instagram Homework This Week
This week we want them to document 1 example of cultural capital using the hashtags #culturalcapital #cmupersuasion2019
Today Francis did an overview of the concept of signs introduced by Eugenia last week, reviewed the Instagram posts assignment, introduced product semantics, introduced the first assignment, and Dan introduced behavioral and psychographic profiling.
We reviewed the concept of signs looking at signified and signifier.
We also reviewed the differences between icons, indexes, and symbols as a reminder before we moved into reviewing the Instagram homework. Icons are a direct representation. Indexs require you to make congnitive choices. Symbols are culturally developed and learned over time and have no logical connection.
Instagram Homework Review
Students had to take photos that represented icons, indexes, and symbols.
This image ended up debated on whether it was a symbol or an icon.
So, is this a symbol or an icon?
Francis introduced the concept of product semantics, which is the study of the symbolic qualities of man-made forms in the context of their use and the application of their knowledge to industrial design. There are 3 elements of product semantics:
Something about the object itself
Something about the larger context of its use
Something about the user who interacts with it and develops a conceptual connection
Below is a diagram visualizing the 3 elements and how they work together
The concept of product semantics lead into introducing cabinets of curiosities, which is an element of the first project, which was introduced today. Cabinets of curiosities were a popular way to display a collection of unique and usual objects. They were traditionally a room and featured items that told stories of fact and fiction with items typically associated with natural histories, such as skulls and minerals, as well as historical and religious objects.
We asked the students what are the elements of a cabinet of curiosities, which will be things for them to think about as they start working on designing their own cabinet of curiosities for the first project.
Behavioral and Psychographic Profiling
Dan introduced the concept of behavioral and psychographic profiling. He showed a clip from a talk by the CEO of Cambridge Analytica about the Ted Cruz campaign and how they used big data and psychographics to develop profiles of American citizens based on their personality traits.
As designers, it is important to understand and consider the concept of behavioral and psychographic profiling because the work we may end up working on most likely will use some form of it. The questions we must think about are if you have or could build a ‘persuasion’ profile, how would (should) you use it, as a designer? And is there a way to do it in a less sinister and more ethical way?
We had students look at their Facebook profiles and look at the data and information that is collected on them and what Facebook has decided their interests are. We wanted them to think about are the interests and do they align, how would they use that information, and how would they target based on the information.
Instagram Homework This Week
This week we want them to document 1 example of product semantics using the hashtags #productsemantics #cmupersuasion2019.
Today’s class was split into three modules. Dan introduced the course and lectured about propaganda, and Eugenia lectured about semiotics.
So, what is this course about?
In this course, students will be exploring persuasion, looking at persuasion from different perspectives, both design and other disciplines to gain a broad understanding of what persuasion is, why it is an important skill for designers, and how it can be applied within a design context.
The class will be split into 3 modules:
How you are persuaded
You as a persuader
Dan introduced the concept of propaganda and spoke about the power and historical uses of it.
Eugenia introduced the concept of semiotics, which is the study of signs and their meaning in the context of communication and social interactions. The founders of semiotics are Ferdinand De Saussure, a Swiss Linguist, and Charles Sanders Peirce, an American Professor of Philosophy and Logic.
We asked the class to break into groups and choose a video, such as a music video or commercial, and analyze it looking for the signs that are represented within it. Students looked at a range of videos from Katy Perry’s California Gurls to Dos Equis’s The Most Interesting Man in the World commercial.
We also introduced the Instagram assignment, which will be a weekly activity for the duration of the semester. Each week the students will need to take a photograph or video of something that relates to the topics introduced in class and upload it to Instagram and describe their reasoning in the caption. Students also need to use the hashtag of the week and always use #cmupersuasion2019.
This week we want them to document 1-2 signs and categorize them as iconic, indexical or symbolic using the hashtags #index #icon # symbol #cmupersuasion2019.